Consider this your history lesson light on the sometimes-turbulent journey of birth control to become the methods we know, use and love today.
Ancient world[ edit ] Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt[ edit ] Birth control and abortion are well documented in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. See History of abortion. It describes various contraceptive pessariesincluding acacia gumwhich recent research has confirmed to have spermatocidal qualities and is still used in contraceptive jellies.
Other birth control methods mentioned in the papyrus include the application of gummy substances to cover the "mouth of the womb" i. Lactation breast-feeding of up to three years was also used for birth control purposes in ancient Egypt. Some of these plants are toxic and ancient Greek documents specify safe dosages.
Himesmost methods of birth control used in antiquity were probably ineffective. In the same century Sun Simiao documented the "thousand of gold contraceptive prescription" for women who no longer want to bear children.
This prescription, which was supposed to induce sterility, was made of oil and quicksilver heated together for one day and taken orally. Medieval and early modern period[ edit ] Early Islam[ edit ] In the late 9th to early 10th century, the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi documented coitus interruptuspreventing ejaculation and the use of pessaries to block the cervix as birth control methods.
He described a number of pessaries, including elephant dung, cabbages and pitchused alone or in combination.
In the early 10th century the Persian Polymath Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdallah ibn Sinaknown in Europe as Avicenna, included a chapter on birth control in his medical encyclopedia The Canon of Medicinelisting 20 different methods of preventing conception.
South Asia[ edit ] Indians used a variety of birth control methods since ancient times, including a potion made of powdered palm leaf and red chalkas well as pessaries made of honeygheerock salt or the seeds of the palasa tree. A variety of birth control prescriptions, mainly made up of herbs and other plants, are listed in the 12th century Ratirahasya "Secrets of Love" and in the 15th century Ananga Ranga "The Stage of the God of Love".
Riddle attributed this to attempts of European states to "repopulate" Europe after dramatic losses following the plague epidemics that started in Institoriswho at the time was inquisitor for TyrolSalzburgBohemia and Moravia.
Casanova in the 18th century was one of the first reported using "assurance caps" to prevent impregnating his mistresses. The economist Thomas Malthus argued in An Essay on the Principle of Population that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress.
He demonstrated that two types of checks hold population within resource limits: The positive checks include hunger, disease and war; the preventive checks, abortion, birth control, prostitution, postponement of marriage and celibacy.
On the other hand, "preventive checks" to population that limited birthrates, such as later marriages, could ensure a higher standard of living for all, while also increasing economic stability. Malthusians were in favour of limiting population growth and began actively promoting birth control through a variety of groups.
The Malthusian League was established in and promoted the education of the public about the importance of family planning and advocated for the elimination of penalties against the promoters of birth control. Starting in the s, birth rates began to drop steadily in the industrialized countries, as women married later and families in urban living conditions increasingly favoured having fewer children.
This trend was particularly acute in the United Kingdom, where birth rates declined from almost Many women were educated about contraception and how to avoid pregnancy. While the rhythm method was not yet understood, condoms and diaphragms made of vulcanized rubber were reliable and inexpensive.
Margaret Sanger and Otto Bobsein popularised the phrase "birth control" in Sanger established a short lived birth control clinic in which was shut down just nine days later.
Sanger was arrested for distributing contraceptives, and went on trial. The first permanent birth control clinic was established in Britain in by the birth control campaigner Marie Stopesin collaboration with the Malthusian League.
Stopes, who exchanged ideas with Sanger,  wrote her book Married Love on birth control in ; - it was eventually published privately due to its controversial nature. Its success was followed up with Wise Parenthood: Later in the same year, Stopes founded the Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress, a support organization for the clinic.
Her clinic made contraception acceptable during the s by framing it in scientific terms and gained an international reputation. The Malthusian League opened up a second clinic shortly afterward, but admitted that Stopes clinic had been the first in the British Empirealthough the League emphasised that theirs was the first scientific clinic where birth control instruction was given under medical supervision the medical officer was Norman Haire.
Stopes was particularly influential in helping emerging birth control movements in a number of British colonies. The societal acceptance of birth control required the separation of sexual activity from procreation, making birth control a highly controversial subject in some countries at some points in the 20th century.
Connecticut that a Connecticut law prohibiting the use of contraceptives violated the constitutional "right to marital privacy". Inthe case Eisenstadt v. Baird expanded the right to possess and use contraceptives to unmarried couples.
In France, the Birth Law contained a clause that criminalized dissemination of birth-control literature. This reflected Catholic teachings on sexual morality.The history of contraceptives is an interesting one to say the least. I think we should thank the men and women who invented more safe, sterile and effective methods of birth control and perhaps even thank our lucky stars we were not around to experience the “concoctions” or reusable condoms!
When it comes to the abortion issue, there’s enough squid ink being squirted in our faces on a daily basis to blind an elephant. I’m politically agnostic on abortion and always have been: if it were banned tomorrow, I wouldn’t lift a finger in either opposition or support.
Religious opposition to abortion, birth control and contraception: Despite the practical necessity of birth control, the benefits of disease prevention, the moral responsibility we have towards the future of our children and the responsibility we have with regards to the stewardship of our planet, many religions have opposed birth control for various superstitious reasons.
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are safer for women who have a history of blood clots or have uncontrolled high blood pressure. Both types of contraception help regulate. The ICMS(ICPD-Kenya) is an integrated digital service designed for management of Continous Proffessional Development(CPD). Healthcare providers have the ability to report their Offline and Online Continuous Professional Development (CPD) activities.