The talk was inspired by the many sculptured stone heads in the cathedral and she produced some most original ideas to explain who they were.
To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. Drug companies are trying to make them, but phytoestrogens—natural compounds in plants, like genistein in soybeans, that are structurally similar to estrogen—appear to function as natural selective estrogen receptor modulators.
How could something that looks like estrogen act as an anti-estrogen? The original theory for how soy phytoestrogens control breast cancer growth is that they compete with our own estrogens for binding to the estrogen receptor.
So, the estrogen-blocking ability of phytoestrogens can help explain their anti-estrogenic effects. But, how do we then explain their pro-estrogenic effects on other tissues, like bone? How can soy have it both ways? The mystery was solved when we discovered there are two types of estrogen receptors in the body.
And, so, how a target cell responds depends on which type of estrogen receptors they have. About half is bound up to proteins in the blood; so, the effective concentration is about half that. This is the graph that explains the mysterious health benefits of soy foods. The way estrogen pills increase the risk of fatal blood clots is by causing the liver to dump out all these extra clotting factors.
The human liver only contains alpha estrogen receptors, not beta receptors. But, at the kinds of concentrations one would get with just normal soy consumption, no wonder this is a problem with drug estrogens—but not soy phytoestrogens. The effects on the uterus appear also to be mediated solely by alpha receptors—which is, presumably, why no negative impact has been seen with soy.
So, while estrogen-containing drugs may increase the risk of endometrial cancer up to ten-fold, phytoestrogen-containing foods are associated with significantly less endometrial cancer—in fact, protective effects for these types of gynecological cancers, in general.
The Kupperman index is like a compilation of all 11 of the most common menopausal symptoms. In terms of bone health, human bone cells carry beta estrogen receptors. So, we might expect soy phytoestrogens to be protective.
Soy milk was compared to a transdermal progesterone cream. The control group lost significant bone mineral density in their spine over the two-year study period. But, the progesterone group lost significantly less, and the two glasses of soy milk a day group ended up actually better than when they started.
This is probably the most robust study to date, comparing the soy phytoestrogen genistein to a more traditional hormone replacement drug regimen. In the spine, over a year, the placebo group lost bone density, but gained in the phytoestrogen and estrogen groups, and the same with the hip bones.
The study clearly shows that the soy phytoestrogen prevents bone loss, and enhances new bone formation, in turn producing a net gain of bone mass.
But, the only reason we care about bone mass is that we want to prevent fractures. Is soy food consumption associated with lower fracture risk? A significantly lower risk of bone fracture associated with just a single serving of soy a day—the equivalent of 5 to 7 grams of soy protein, or 20 to 30 milligrams of phytoestrogens.
So, if we seek the types of health benefits we presume Asian populations get from eating whole and traditional soy foods, maybe we should look to eating those, rather than taking unproven protein powders or pills.
Is there anyone who should avoid soy?Following is the answer key for the recently conducted General Studies Paper – 1 (Set – C) of the UPSC civil services preliminary exam. We have tried to provide best possible explanation for each question based on various authentic sources.
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At a recent meeting at Settlebeck School, Richard Cann, Chairman of Sedbergh and District History Society, showed a selection of slides from the Society’s large collection, which numbers over pictures, collected over the last 30 years. Jun 02, · College is a great place to learn and have fun.
But let’s not kid ourselves, some degrees are as useless as the plot in a Michael Bay film.