They, in turn, fell to the Mexica and were incorporated into the Aztec Empire by Moctezuma Ilhuicamina in the 15th century. By mid-century, Spanish settlers introduced to the area cattle, new crops and the Catholic faith preached by Franciscan missionaries. Beginning inrich silver deposits were discovered in the vicinity of Pachuca and Real del Monte, spurring a new wave of Spanish settlement. As mining activity escalated, the settlers increasingly relied on encomiendas, royal grants authorizing individual Spaniards to require labor from a specified number of native inhabitants placed under their authority.
Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo's father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers.
Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos.
Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education.
After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning Miguel hidalgo degree in philosophy and theology in He also studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time.
Beginning inhe was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary,  becoming dean of the school in when he was Authorities ousted him in for revising Miguel hidalgo teaching methods there, but also for "irregular handling of some funds.
In his personal life, he did not advocate or live the way expected of 18th-century Mexican priests. Instead, his studies of Enlightenment-era ideas caused him to challenge traditional political and religious views.
He questioned the absolute authority of the Spanish king and challenged numerous ideas presented by the Church, including the power of the popes, the virgin birthand clerical celibacy. As a secular cleric, he was not bound by a vow of poverty, so he, like many other secular priests, pursued business activities, including owning three haciendas;  but contrary to his vow of chastity, he formed liaisons with women.
One was with Manuela Ramos Pichardo, with whom he had two children, as well as a child with Bibiana Lucero. These actions resulted in his appearance before the Court of the Inquisitionalthough the court did not find him guilty. As parish priest in both San Felipe and Dolores, he opened his house to Indians and mestizos as well as creoles.
Francisco Iglesias, and devoted himself almost exclusively to commerce, intellectual pursuits and humanitarian activity. He established factories to make bricks and pottery and trained indigenous people in the making of leather.
However, these activities violated policies designed to protect agriculture and industry in Spain, and Hidalgo was ordered to stop them.
These policies as well as exploitation of mixed race castas fostered resentment in Hidalgo of the Peninsular-born Spaniards in Mexico. A drought in — caused a famine in the Dolores area, and, rather than releasing stored grain to market, Spanish merchants chose instead to block its release, speculating on yet higher prices.
Hidalgo lobbied against these practices. Grito de Dolores The Bell of Dolores was moved from the church to Mexico's National Palace after Hidalgo's death and is rung each year on independence day by the president Fearing his arrest,  Hidalgo commanded his brother Mauricio, as well as Ignacio Allende and Mariano Abasoloto go with a number of other armed men to make the sheriff release prison inmates in Dolores on the night of 15 September They managed to set eighty free.
On the morning of 16 SeptemberHidalgo called Masswhich was attended by about people, including hacienda owners, local politicians and Spaniards. There he gave what is now known as the Grito de Dolores Cry of Dolores calling the people of his parish to leave their homes and join with him in a rebellion against the current government, in the name of their King.
The Grito also emphasized loyalty to the Catholic religion, a sentiment with which both Creoles and Peninsulares could sympathize. Intellectuals, liberal priests and many poor people followed Hidalgo with a great deal of enthusiasm.
However, Hidalgo's actions and the people's response, meant he would lead and not Allende. Allende had acquired military training when Mexico established a colonial militia; Hidalgo had no military training at all.
The people who followed Hidalgo also had no military training, experience or equipment. Many of these people were poor who were angry after many years of hunger and oppression. Consequently, Hidalgo was the leader of undisciplined rebels.
Many villagers that joined the insurgent army came to believe that Ferdinand VII himself commanded their loyalty to Hidalgo and the monarch was in New Spain personally directing the rebellion against his own government. They believed that the king commanded the extermination of all peninsular Spaniards and the division of their property among the masses.
Historian Eric Van Young believes that such ideas gave the movement supernatural and religious legitimacy that went as far as messianic expectation. They remained here for a while and then decided to march towards Mexico City.
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Born in , Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was the second of eleven children fathered by Cristóbal Hidalgo, an estate administrator. He and his elder brother attended a school run by the Jesuits, and both decided to join the priesthood. They studied at San Nicolás Obisbo, a prestigious school in.
Apr 29, · Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla retained power between and as a revolutionary Mexican priest. He was considered to be among the foremost individuals in regards to the realization of Mexican independence.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary leader who is called the father of Mexican independence. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla led the Mexican independence movement against Spanish rule in and unleashed a torrent of political passions that rocked Mexico for the first sixty years of its.
Though the state is named after Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the town of Dolores, where he started the cry for revolution, is actually located in Guanajuato, not Hidalgo, Mexico.