Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research by Nedra Kline Weinreich Introduction Traditionally, research in the field of health promotion has followed in the footsteps of its "older brother," medicine. However, the reductionistic model of disease causation cannot adequately describe the complex mechanisms that influence health behavior. Social marketers working to promote health have learned that rigorous quantitative research surveys do not necessarily provide all of the data needed to develop effective communications.
The researcher observes, takes notes, talks to people, etc. All of these are skills that need to be learned. As Delamont wrote: The same applies to carrying out interviews. Just the fact that we talk to people in our everyday life, listen, ask questions and communicate does not make us naturally a good interviewer.
According to Helffericha good interviewer needs the following skills: Technical competence, Interactive competence: Technical competence is needed in organizing interviews.
You need to find participants, make arrangements for the interview, explain matters of confidentiality, prepare consent forms, make your interview participant feel comfortable, and find Methods of qualitative of data collection right words to open the interview situation.
Interactive competence refers to paying attention to your interview partner and steering the interview into the desired direction. Your job is to open up the stage so that the interviewee feels comfortable talking. The roles need to be clarified: This violates the rules of everyday talk as the balance shifts.
You need to be an active listener, showing interest and encourage the interviewee to speak. You need to find the right moment to ask the next question, to find the right way and form in asking it and you need to keep the conversation going.
This entails dealing with silence, reading non-verbal signals and sending appropriate signals. You need to be self-reflexive all the time, controlling your reactions and showing the right level of empathy.
This requires some practice, but we all need to start somewhere. When you have the chance, take part in interview training. A good way to check how good or bad you were as an interviewer is when you transcribe the data.
Knowledge about communication theory helps you in recognizing certain dialog signals and strategies of talk.
Further, it will help you in mediating roles to generate the right power balance and level of cooperation in the interview. Within the communication literature, you will also find some advice on how to deal with difficult interview situations and participants.
In dealing with previous knowledge and personal bias resulting from it, you need to train holding back or working with your own thoughts, feelings, convictions and expectations. A prerequisite is that you are aware of your biases and that you can explicit them.
This is a requirement for overcoming selective attention. During the process of conducting the study, you need to be prepared for the effects that this may have on you.
You need to be prepared for having to revise your previous knowledge. Understanding your research participant is another issue.
Based on your personal bias, you may not understand what he or she is talking about or do not find it logical or meaningful. Within seconds during the interview, you have to decide whether it is ok to ask a clarifying question or leaving it to the interpretation phase to gain a better comprehension.
The following is a quote from an interview with a person addicted to shopping: Download Free Trial Version Interviewer: How would you feel if you were to go out without any money? This is probably one of the worst things I can remember.
And it would take some time to have them replaced, the credit cards. So this particular three days I had no income, no money at all. It may also sound puzzling that it is impossible for someone to leave the house because the purse was lost.
I continued to listen and let her tell me her story.Qualitative Research Methods from University of Amsterdam. In this course you will be introduced to the basic ideas behind the qualitative research in social science.
You will learn about data collection, description, analysis and interpretation. Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data.
Home → Blog → What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques.
Some. Data Collection Techniques Information you gather can come from a range of sources. Likewise, there are a variety of techniques to use when gathering primary data. Qualitative Exam Part 1 (5%): Compare and contrast two qualitative research studies in your field and interest.
Include brief summaries of the studies, with relevant details about the research question and the qualitative methods. Volume 6, No.
43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative ashio-midori.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. by Nedra Kline Weinreich. Introduction. Traditionally, research in the field of health promotion has followed in the footsteps of its "older brother," medicine.