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When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines using a variety of fuels, generally gasoline or Diesel engines and electric motors to power the vehicle.
The energy is stored in the fuel of the internal combustion engine and an electric battery set. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrainsfrom Full hybrid to Mild hybridwhich offer varying advantages and disadvantages. Patton filed a patent application for a gasoline-electric hybrid rail-car propulsion system in earlyand for a similar hybrid boat propulsion system in mid InFerdinand Porsche developed a series-hybrid using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with an internal combustion generator set providing the electric power; Porsche's hybrid set two speed records.
His home-converted Opel GT was reported to return as much as 75 mpg with plans still sold to this original design, and the "Mother Earth News" modified version on their website. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. The batteries can be plugged into house mains electricity for charging, as well being charged while the engine is running.
Such a vehicle establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism see Conduit current collection.
The BEV's batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged.
For example, some of the battery-electric locomotives used for maintenance trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation.
Developing a BEV infrastructure would provide the advantage of virtually unrestricted highway range. Unfortunately, private use of the existing electrical system is almost universally prohibited. Besides, the technology for such electrical infrastructure is largely outdated and, outside some cities, not widely distributed see Conduit current collectiontramselectric railtrolleysthird rail.
Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs could perhaps be funded by toll revenue or by dedicated transportation taxes. Hybrid fuel dual mode [ edit ] Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85 ethanol In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsionsome also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types " fuels " using the same engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles: Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on-board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions see dual mode bus.
In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of [update]no such design seems to have been announced. Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanolmethanolor biobutanol.
Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an LPG or NG flexible fuel system.
Instead vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the US Natural gas infrastructure is partially incomplete, it is increasing at a fast pace, and already has CNG stations in place. Rising gas prices may also push consumers to purchase these vehicles.
All of these factors are making CNG-Gasoline bi-fuel vehicles very attractive. Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas LPG and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.
Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included see Motorized bicycle. Fluid power hybrid[ edit ] Chrysler minivan, petro-hydraulic hybrid French MDI petro-air hybrid car developed with Tata Hydraulic hybrid and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic liquid or pneumatic compressed air drive units.
In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain, serving solely to charge the energy accumulator. The transmission is seamless.
Regenerative braking can be used to recover some of the supplied drive energy back into the accumulator. Petro-air hybrid[ edit ] A French company, MDIhas designed and has running models of a petro-air hybrid engine car.
The system does not use air motors to drive the vehicle, being directly driven by a hybrid engine. The engine uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders. The auto industry recently focused on this hybrid configuration as it now shows promise for introduction into smaller vehicles.
The charging engine runs at optimum speed and load for efficiency and longevity. In the modern sense an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hydraulic hybrid road vehicles in A group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the shelf components.
No lightweight materials were used.
The accumulator vessel size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than an electric battery set. Any vehicle space consumed by a larger size of accumulator vessel may be offset by the need for a smaller sized charging engine, in HP and physical size. Research is underway in large corporations and small companies.
Focus has now switched to smaller vehicles.The best supply chains aren’t just fast and cost-effective. They are also agile and adaptable, and they ensure that all their companies’ interests stay aligned.
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