For a suitable donation, a question could be put to the Pythia and an answer obtained from Apollo.
Nearly 70 percent of the Gross National Product of the United States and other industrial nations can be traced to services Lovelockwhile up to three-quarters of those Courtroom observation essay in some countries labor in service sector occupations Bateson Scholars and researchers have given significant attention to how the marketing of services differs from the marketing of goods Berry ; Sasser ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman ; etc.
One key characteristic that distinguishes services marketing is the simultaneity of production and consumption of the service product Bateson ; Berry ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman Services exist only in the time in which they are rendered and are living processes that cannot be disassembled Shostack and Kingman-Brundage Courtroom observation essay, p.
These various aspects of service delivery underscore the notion that services are complex, behavioral phenomena that can be quite difficult to understand or describe. A review of the services marketing literature compiled by Fisk, Tansuhaj and Crosby reveals that less than fifteen percent of the total service literature to attempts to conceptualize the service experience.
In short, conceptual frameworks are needed Bowen ; Upah, Berry and Shostack ; Lovelock that demonstrate common characteristics of services, capture the processual nature of services, and address the "descriptive language problems" Shostack plaguing the services literature.
In an effort to satisfy this need for conceptual frameworks, the discussion that follows posits a general framework for services marketing based upon the metaphor of behavior as drama.
The underpinnings of the drama metaphor are presented, along with several key concepts that it offers for the description of services marketing.
The service experience as theater is further developed and implications ensuing from the framework are given. Finally, some research issues are examined and concluding comments are given. As such, it is particularly relevant as a means to describe service encounters. As a sociological school of thought born from the symbolic interactionist paradigm, the behavior as drama metaphor has generated wide attention.
Perinbanayagam,have contributed much to the development of the dramaturgical perspective. Underlying their observations is the tacit understanding that people are symbol users who interact with each other based upon the meanings they assign to the sundry elements present at any behavioral setting.
Dramaturgy, then, is greatly concerned with the broad issue of communication, both discursive speech and language and nondiscursive gestures, clothing, and other objectsand the connection between the two Brissett and Edgley Definitions of reality emerge as action occurs and those present strive to make sense of behavior situations.
Social reality, then, is not simply like drama, it is drama in so far as it a discourse involving articulation, definition and interaction Perinbanayagamp. The application of the drama metaphor to behavior is probably best represented in the scholarly efforts of Goffman,and most readily in his work, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.
Goffman describes social behavior as theatrical "performances" in which "actors" present themselves and their actions in such a manner as to fashion desired "impressions" before an "audience. Through it all, however, is the realization that performances are fragile processes that are easily undermined by the most minor of mishaps.
The role of the audience in developing and maintaining a definition of an interactive situation cannot be ignored. While the meanings and interpretations that an audience assigns to a behavioral encounter may be partially a function of previous learning, their validation occurs during or following the interaction.
In other words, meanings are not absolute or static characteristics of the world, but are the result of a continuous social process Burke Further, it is important to note that this negotiation of a definition of the situation occurs, whether or not it is by design, since all behavior is ostensibly expressive in nature Zicklin The metaphor that behavior is drama and the various principles that it engenders provide a framework for describing, understanding, and communicating about services experiences.
In essence, our contention is that services themselves are drama and may be understood as theatrical performances. Both are concerned with the tactics and strategies employed by people to create and sustain desirable impressions before an audience.
Reflecting observations of services scholars, Goffman notes that in their performance " Clearly, Goffman recognized that services issues are resplendent with dramatic character. Many of the drama concepts and principles may be used to capture the service experience.
Consequently, just as theatrical performers must commit themselves to a plethora of considerations to stage a believable performance, the service "actors" must subscribe to a variety of concerns to foster a desired impression before their audience.
Among these industries there exists the opportunity to create a competitive advantage through service actors, a notion discussed by Berry, Parasuraman, and Zeithaml as the "people factor. The audience plays a critical role in the determination of a service production across many diverse services.
In many services, the audience customer must be present for the service to occur e. This is a circumstance recognized by services scholars as inseparability of production and consumption Berry ; Lovelock; Shostack Similar to the audience of a theatrical production that has a measure of responsibility to ensure that a satisfying performance is staged by adhering to certain standards of behaviorthe customers of a service are also obliged to embrace various behavioral rules.
Setting Another key component in the depiction of services as theater is the physical setting in which the service is delivered. The various features of a services setting combine to help define and facilitate the service exchange Baker ; Booms and Bitner ; Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry and provide evidence and tangible cues of its reality.
The setting plays an important role in positioning a service organization and attracting a specific clientele Booms and Bitner Further, it can be used to inform new customers as to the nature of a service e.
Performance Performance is the set of activities that occur before an audience.As you can see from the chart, the percentage of Americans who had a “great deal” or a “fair amount” of trust in the news media has declined from over 70 percent shortly after Watergate to about 44 percent today.
Advances in Consumer Research Volume 19, Pages THE SERVICE EXPERIENCE AS THEATER. Stephen J. Grove, Clemson University. Raymond P. Fisk, University of Central Florida.
INTRODUCTION. The increased interest in services marketing during the past decade reflects a growing appreciation of the role services . Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Essay about Courtroom Observation Courtroom Observation Liberty University presented a case of White v. Gibbs which is about Mrs. Debbie White and Patrick Gibbs under the civil provisions of Indiana’s Dram Shop Act, Indiana Code How to Start an Introduction for a Court Observation Paper By Kimberley McGee ; Updated June 20, Regardless of what brings you to the court to collect information for writing an observation paper, pulling together a well-done piece is a relatively simple process.
My report on court room observation focuses on observations from two courts, Slough Magistrates court in the Thames Valley area and the Central Criminal court most commonly known as the Old Bailey which is a Crown court in London.4/4(1).