The intelligent electronic system part is integrated in the same way of IC device fabrication. The most popular material used for MEMS is Silicon for it's semiconductorphysical and commercial properties. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate.
Mobile devices used in hospitals are of particular interest, as they have been implicated in the spread of nosocomial infections . Microbial contamination is most commonly found on the mouthpiece, although the earpiece and the handles of public telephones can also harbour bacterial species.
While indirect contamination from person to person has decreased with the decline in the use of public payphones, cell phones with buttons and keyboards and other personal mobile phones in general has been found to be even more conducive to bacterial contamination .
Physical Environment The majority of bacterial species that have been found on phone surfaces are those that are part of the normal flora of the skin and body, due to the constant contact with the hands and face. The normal flora of the skin includes up to bacterial cells, the most common species being Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacteria .
In addition, bacteria found in the mouth and the upper respiratory tract can also spread through aerosols and droplets that are released while breathing or talking into the mouthpiece . Many species are resistant to desiccation and can persist on phone surfaces for weeks, with gram-negative bacteria usually persisting longer than their gram-positive counterparts .
Despite this, actual colonization and growth of bacteria is rare due to the general lack of nutrients and moisture on the plastic and glass surfaces of phones. Chart depicting the various bacteria found on phone surfaces based on the study by Nikolic et. This poses a problem as S.
When inside the body, these surfaces provide an accommodating environment for S. The contamination rate of S. Acinetobacter baumannii Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous bacterium that can be found in the normal skin flora, as well as in soil and bodies of water, amongst others .
It is a gram-negative coccobacilli, which are characterized by their truncated rod shape. Some strains have also shown to be extremely resistant to desiccation, surviving for several months with little to no reduction in the number of colonies .
SEM image of Acinetobacter baumannii. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections . Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA is of particular importance in the medical community, as it has evolved resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics .
However, their occurrence on phone surfaces has been shown to be relatively rare compared to susceptible strains, with a higher rate of occurrence amongst phones in the hospital than on personal mobile phones . Implications on Nosocomial Infections The rise of the use of mobile phones has surprisingly important implications in the microbiology and medical communities, most notably in the area of nosocomial infections.
While some hospitals have banned them for this reason, mobile phone use is still relatively commonplace, even in operating rooms . Mobile phones, as well as other more documented items such as surgical equipment, stethoscopes, and clothing can act as a reservoir for bacterial growth or contamination.
These items can then act as potential vectors, transferring bacteria onto susceptible patients through indirect-contact transmission. However, while many of these items are subjected to very high hygienic standards, standard cleaning procedures or even guidelines for the use of mobile phones in hospitals have yet to be established .
Furthermore, there is also the risk of further transmitting nosocomial pathogens outside of the hospital if health care workers use the same cell phone for personal use. Decontamination Many studies    have reported that the majority of people, including health care workers, do not clean their mobile device.
This poses a potential risk factor, as many doctors and nurses not only carry their mobile devices with them, but some have also reported using them while observing patients . However, recommendations for proper cleaning have not yet been established as many phone manufacturers recommend against using alcohol to clean their phones.
Potential pathogens and effective disinfectants on public telephones at a large urban United States university.
Journal of environmental health. Bacterial contamination of mobile phones used in hospitals. Contamination rates between smart cell phones and non-smart cell phones of healthcare workers.
Journal of Hospital Medicine. Microbiology of public telephones.Classifying White Collar Positions. Position classification standards and functional guides define Federal white collar occupations, establish official position titles, and describe the various levels of work..
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