Some Romans even confused celtic areas for being germanic, so it was very undefinite of what area it was. It would be great if someone could add this to the footnote section of the article.
What follows is a brief chronological history of some of the more interesting ideas and developments. Preparing children for the world in which they will live is becoming more difficult than ever.
In retrospect, there has been a confluence of changes that have significantly impacted the direction of modern education.
To benefit from these markets, nations must be competitive, and to be competitive they must have a well-educated work force. New, science-based, information industries are emerging in which knowledge and human capital are as important as industrial plants. Daniel Bell says a major characteristic of these industries is that they derive from work in theoretical science and are dependent on the codification of theoretical knowledge.
The significance of this development is that if we choose to maintain our current standard of living, our knowledge workers must compete in an international market and must have a good understanding of science. The Scientific Information Explosion We are experiencing a scientific information explosion of unprecedented proportions.
Today, scientists and engineers use computers to access thousands of rapidly growing data bases that store numbers, words, maps, chemical and physical structures; and they search them millions of times a year.
The base of scientific knowledge today is huge. Rapid changes in many fields are making basic knowledge and skills obsolete. Knowledge is continually being modified and basic concepts and theories are being revised.
New theories emerge as new discoveries offer new ways of looking at the data. Disciplines are merging and hyphenated sub-disciplines are being formed. Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate, observed that the developments in science and information processing technologies have changed the meaning of the verb, "to know.
The Emergence of Cognitive Science There has been a major paradigm shift in education from theories of "learning" to theories of "cognition.
It addresses how the human, as an information processor, functions and uses information. Rather than focusing on teaching facts through expository lectures or demonstrations, the emphasis is, instead, on developing higher-order, thinking and problem-solving skills.
The cognitive approach is important because it recognizes human information processing strengths and weaknesses, and the limits of human perception and memory in coping with the information explosion.
It focuses, instead, on organizing information to fit human capacity, and has changed the emphasis in education from learning to thinking. New Educational Demands The launching of Sputnik, an unmanned Soviet satellite, in stirred national interest in educational reform.
Thus began what has been called the "golden age" of education. Major national efforts were made to reform education. While many of the problems in education were not new, other new and different demands were changing the basic structure of education. First, there was a change in national philosophy from a position of making mass education available to many to a challenge to provide education for all.
Second, we were preparing children for a new type of society that did not yet exist. Third, since people were now living significantly longer, formal education could not end with a high school or even a college degree.
Fourth, modern communications such as radio, film, television and computers had created an information-rich society.
Schools were no longer the only center of information, but had to compete for student attention. Finally, the new emerging educational technologies were to become an important catalyst for rethinking education.
It has been about 50 years since the first operational computer was put into use: Early use of computers in education was primarily found in mathematics, science and engineering as a mathematical problem-solving tool, replacing the slide rule and thus permitting students to deal more directly with problems of a type and size most likely to be encountered in the real world.
The several thousand-terminal system served undergraduate education as well as elementary school reading, a community college in Urbana, and several campuses in Chicago. They did not like the idea that students had to stand in long lines with punch cards for batch processing.
So they adopted the recently demonstrated concept of time-sharing that allowed many students to interact directly with the computer.
Follow-up on the Citizen’s right to access information law. The formed committee, which consists of a judge from the Council of State and three lawyers, was assigned to . Indicator 2 Allocates time for personal and professional development through participation in educational seminars and workshops reading educational materials regularly and engaging in educational research At what level do I. involve the community in the programs.4 Articulates and demonstrates one's personal philosophy of teaching . Educators should inform parents of the school's educational goals, the importance of high expectations for each child, and ways of assisting with homework and classroom lessons. Reality Check: In the Sacramento Unified School District, teachers make home visits to students' families.
The university developed the time-shared system and expanded it into a regional computing center for colleges and schools. It spread rapidly and was used for the creation of computer-based instructional materials for a wide variety of subjects and for all levels of education.
Computer-Assisted Instruction Inwhile at Stanford, Patrick Suppes and Richard Atkinson established a program of research and development on computer-assisted instruction in mathematics and reading.
They sought to free students from the lock-step process of group-paced instruction and developed individualized, instructional strategies that allowed the learner to correct his responses through rapid feedback.
The self-paced programs allowed a student to take an active role in the learning process. Mastery was obtained through drill-and-practice. He developed a programming language, LOGO, to encourage rigorous thinking about mathematics.
He wanted it to be accessible to children and to be easy to express procedures for simple tasks like many non-numerical problems familiar to children.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, or UNCRC, is the basis of all of Unicef’s work. It is the most complete statement of children’s rights ever produced and is the most widely-ratified international human rights treaty in history.
The TSNA involves three essential stages of training needs analysis: Phase I (Job Analysis for Effective Teaching) is actually done by analyzing natio set teacher standards in behavioral terms or by identifying effective teaching competencies. l y b e r t y.
c o m: now serving over 10, files (> 2, active html pages) adb creative suite 3 compare lyberty. splash page version: (June 28) 選ぶべき道は自由か死だ。 get banner. Our research aims to contribute to fill this gap, first by seeking to determine the drivers of innovation and productivity in services markets, with .
Improving educational outcomes for poor children 2. High-poverty schools lack the capacity to substantially capacity of staff in these schools through professional development or more selective hiring.
3. High-poverty schools do not have sufficient incentives or flexibility to improve instruction. our nation’s public schools. Broadly.
Jan 19, · Guest Post By: Daniel Jelski. A free college education for all? That’s been the dream of many an idealist. President Obama certainly shares this goal— a year ago he said "The single most.